Glossary

A

Absorbed Dose
The amount of energy deposited in any substance by ionizing radiation per unit mass of the substance. It is expressed numerically in rads (traditional units) or grays (SI units).
Access
The point at which a person can get to and exit a scaffold.
Action Level
An 8-hour time-weighted average of 85 decibels measured on the A-scale, slow response, or equivalently, a dose of fifty percent.
Administrative Controls
Procedural control measures that when implemented will eliminate or reduce the severity of the musculoskeletal disorder (e.g., adjustment of work pace, use of rest periods and assignment to a different work station).
Affected Employee
An employee who performs the duties of his or her job in an area in which the energy control procedure is implemented and servicing or maintenance operations are performed. An authorized employee and an affected employee may be the same person when the affected employee’s duties also involve performing maintenance or service on a machine or equipment that must be locked or a tagout system implemented. An affected employee does NOT perform servicing or maintenance on machines or equipment and, consequently, is not responsible for implementing the energy control procedure. An affected employee becomes an “authorized” employee whenever he or she performs servicing or maintenance functions on machines or equipment that must be locked or tagged.
Agitator
A device or apparatus for stirring or shaking.
Agreement State
A state that has signed an agreement with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission under which the state regulates the use of byproduct, source, and small quantities of special nuclear material within that state.
Air-Purifying Respirator
A respirator with an air-purifying filter, cartridge or canister that removes specific air contaminants by passing ambient air through the air-purifying element.
ALARA
Acronym for "As Low As Reasonably Achievable”. It means making every reasonable effort to maintain exposures to ionizing radiation as far below the dose limits as practical. Be consistent with the purpose for which the licensed activity is undertaken, taking into account the state of technology, the economics of improvements in relation to state of technology, the economics of improvements in relation to benefits to the public health and safety, and other societal and socioeconomic considerations. These means are in relation to utilization of nuclear energy and licensed materials in the public interest
Alarm Device
A device used to alert occupants and emergency response personnel in the event the sprinkler system activates.
ALI
Also known as “Annual Limit on Intake”. The derived limit for the permissible amount of radioactive material taken into the body of an adult radiation worker by inhalation or ingestion in a year. The ALI is the smaller value of intake of a given radionuclide in a year by the reference man that would result in either a committed effective dose equivalent of 5 rems (0.05 sievert) or a committed dose equivalent of 50 rems (0.5 sievert) to any individual organ or tissue.
Alpha Particle
A positively charged particle ejected spontaneously from the nuclei of some radioactive elements. It is identical to a helium nucleus that has a mass number of 4 and an electric charge of +2. It has low penetrating power and a short range (a few centimeters in air). The most energetic alpha particle will generally fail to penetrate the dead layers of cells covering the skin and can be easily stopped by a sheet of paper. Alpha particles represent much more of a health risk when emitted by radionuclides deposited inside the body.
Anchorage
A secure point of attachment for lifelines, lanyards or deceleration devices.
Animal Waste
Discarded material originating from animals inoculated with agents infectious to humans during research, production of biologicals or pharmaceutical testing (e.g., carcasses, body parts, blood and bedding of animals known to have been in contact with agents infectious to humans).
Annunciator Panel
A visual device indicating a certain area or room within the building in which a detection device is activated.
ANSI
American National Standards Institute, online at http://web.ansi.org/
Appliance
Any device which contains and uses a Class I or Class II ozone-depleting substance as a refrigerant and which is used for household or commercial purposes, including any air conditioner, refrigerator, chiller, or freezer.
Approved Testing Laboratory
A laboratory or testing facility engaged in the listing or approval of heat detectors such as Underwriters Laboratories.
Area of Rescue Assistance
An area in newer University buildings where individuals who are unable to evacuate can await evacuation assistance. Areas of Rescue Assistance are equipped with a telephone and one-hour fire-rated assembly (e.g., fire-rated door, walls, ceiling). Areas of Rescue Assistance are clearly marked by appropriate signage and are typically found in a stairwell or in an area immediately adjacent to a stairwell.
Asbestos Abatement
Procedures used to control fiber release from asbestos-containing materials during removal activities.
Asbestos-Containing Materials (ACM)
Materials which have greater than one percent (>1%) asbestos fiber present through analytical analysis.
Atmosphere-Supplying Respirator
A respirator that supplies the user with breathing air from a source independent of the ambient atmosphere, and includes supplied-air respirators (SAR) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) units.
Atom
The smallest particle of an element that cannot be divided or broken up by chemical means. It consists of a central core of protons and neutrons, called the nucleus. Electrons revolve in orbits in the region surrounding the nucleus.
Atomic Number
The number of positively charged protons in the nucleus of an atom.
Attendant
An individual stationed outside one or more permit-required confined spaces who monitors the authorized entrants and performs assigned attendant duties.
Attenuation
The noise reducing capacity of hearing protection devices.
Audiometric Evaluations
A chart, graph or table resulting from an audiometric test showing an individual’s hearing threshold levels as a function of frequency.
Authorized Employee
An employee who performs servicing or maintenance on machines and equipment. Lockout or tagout is used by these employees for their self protection.
Authorized Entrant
An employee who is authorized by the employer to enter a permit-required confined space.

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B

Background Radiation
Radiation from cosmic sources; naturally occurring radioactive materials, including radon (except as a decay product of source or special nuclear material), and global fallout as it exists in the environment from the testing of nuclear explosive devices. It does not include radiation from source, byproduct, or special nuclear materials regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The typically quoted average individual exposure from background radiation is 360 millirems per year. G-M meters usually read 0.03mR/hr or 400cpm for background levels.
Base Plates
A component of a scaffold located on the foot of a pole or frame to assist in stabilizing the scaffold.
Baseline Audiogram
The audiogram against which future audiograms are compared.
Becquerel (Bq)
The unit of radioactive decay equal to one disintegration per second. The Becquerel is the basic unit of radioactivity used in the international system of radiation units, referred to as the SI units. 37 billion (3.7×1010) becquerels = 1 curie (Ci).
Belts
All transmission belts, such as flat belts, round belts or V-belts.
Beta Particle
A charged particle emitted from a nucleus during radioactive decay, with a mass equal to 1/1837 that of a proton. A negatively charged beta particle is identical to an electron. A positively charged beta particle is called a positron. Exposure to large amounts of beta radiation from external sources may cause skin burns (erythema). Beta emitters can also be harmful if they enter the body. Thin sheets of metal or plastic may stop beta particles.
Bio-Hazardous Waste
Waste or materials that contain biological materials such as human or animal blood, tissue, or bodies or body parts or is sewer water.
Bioassay
The determination of kinds, quantities, or concentrations and, in some cases, the locations of radioactive material in the human body, whether by direct measurement (in vivo counting) or by analysis and evaluation of materials excreted or removed (in vitro) from the human body.
Biological Half-life
The time required for a biological system, such as that of a human, to eliminate, by natural processes, half of the amount of a substance (such as a radioactive material) that has entered it.
Biological Safety Cabinet
Biological Safety Cabinet: Cabinet intended to protect the user and environment from the hazards associated with the handling of infectious material and other biohazardous material. Some types also protect the materials being handled in them from contamination.
Blanking (Blinding)
The absolute closure of a pipe, line, or duct by the fastening of a solid plate that completely covers the bore and is capable of withstanding the maximum pressure of the contents within the pipe, line, or duct with no leakage beyond the plate.
Blood
Human blood, human blood components, and products made from human blood.
Blood and Blood Products
Discarded waste human blood and blood components (e.g., serum, plasma), and disposable items containing free flowing blood and blood components.
Bloodborne Pathogens
Pathogenic microorganisms that are present in human blood have the potential to cause disease in humans. These pathogens include, but are not limited to, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Body Belt
A strap with means both for securing it about the waist and for attaching it to a lanyard, lifeline deceleration device.
Body Harness System
Straps that may be secured about the person in a manner that distributes the fall-arrest forces over at least the thighs, pelvis, waist, chest and shoulders with a means for attaching the harness to other components of a personal fall arrest system.
Bracing
A rigid connection that holds one scaffold member in a fixed position with respect to another member, or to a building or structure.
Brake
The mechanism used on a mechanical power press to stop and/or hold the crankshaft, either directly or through a gear train, when the clutch is disengaged.
Bulk packaging
A packaging, other than a vessel or a barge, including a transport vehicle or freight container, in which hazardous materials are loaded with no intermediate form of containment and which has: A maximum net mass greater than 400 kilograms and a maximum capacity greater than 450 liters as a receptacle for a solid; or A water capacity greater than 454 kilograms.

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C

Cages
Cages are guards that are fastened to the side rails of the fixed ladder or to the structure to encircle the climbing space of the ladder for the safety of the person who must climb the ladder.
Calender
A machine equipped with two or more metal rolls revolving in opposite directions and used for continuously sheeting or plying up rubber and plastics compounds and for frictioning or coating materials with rubber and plastics compounds.
California Technical Bulletin 116 (1980)
A standard adopted by the State of Illinois Fire Marshall and developed by the State of California, Department of Consumer Affairs, Bureau of Home Furnishings and Thermal Insulation, the “Requirements, Test Procedures and Apparatus for Testing the Flame Retardance of Upholstered Furniture”.
California Technical Bulletin 117 (1980)
A standard adopted by the State of Illinois Fire Marshall and developed by the State of California, Department of Consumer Affairs, Bureau of Home Furnishings and Thermal Insulation, the “Requirements, Test Procedures and Apparatus for Testing the Flame Retardance of Resilient Filling Materials Used in of Upholstered Furniture”.
California Technical Bulletin 133 (1991)
A standard adopted by the State of Illinois Fire Marshall and developed by the State of California, Department of Consumer Affairs, Bureau of Home Furnishings and Thermal Insulation, the “Flammability Test Procedures for Seating Furniture for Use in Public Occupancies”.
Canister or Cartridge
A container with a filter, sorbent, or catalyst, or combination of these items, which removes specific contaminants from the air passed through the container.
Canopies
A protective covering erected over a walkway to protect persons from falling objects and materials.
Capable of Being Locked Out
An energy-isolating device is considered capable of being locked out if it meets one of the following requirements: It is designed with a hasp to which a lock can be attached; It is designed with any other integral part through which a lock can be affixed; It has a locking mechanism built into it; or It can be locked without dismantling, rebuilding, or replacing the energy-isolating device or permanently altering its energy control capability.
Carrier
A person engaged in the transportation of passengers or property by land or water, as a common, contract, private carrier, or civil aircraft.
Cataract
A clouding and stiffening in the lens of the eye, which can be produced by long term or acute exposure to ultra-violet radiation. Cataracts can cause general deterioration of vision, loss of focus, or total blindness.
Chemical
Any element, chemical compound or mixture of elements obtained by a chemical process or used for producing a chemical effect.
Chemical Hygiene Officer
The designated, qualified employee who assists in the development, implementation and monitoring of compliance with the Chemical Hygiene Plan.
Chemical Hygiene Plan
A written program that includes specific work practices, standard operating procedures, equipment, engineering controls and policies to ensure that employees are protected from hazardous exposure levels to all potentially hazardous chemicals in use within their work areas.
Chemical Name
The scientific designation of a chemical in accordance with the nomenclature system developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) or the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) rules of nomenclature, or a name which will clearly identify the chemical for the purpose of conducting a hazard evaluation.
Class I Cabinet
A ventilated cabinet for personnel and environmental protection, with an unrecirculated air flow away from the operator. Similar to a chemical fume hood, except a Class I cabinet has a HEPA filter on its exhaust outlet and may or may not be connected to an exhaust duct system. Class I cabinets are suitable for work with agents that require Biosafety 1, 2 or 3 containment.
Class II Cabinet
A ventilated cabinet for personnel, product and environmental protection. The cabinet has an open front with inward airflow for personnel protection, HEPA filtered laminar air flow for product protection, HEPA filtered exhaust air for environmental protection. Class II cabinets are suitable for use with agents that require Biosafety 1, 2 or 3 containment. When toxic chemicals or radionuclides are used, Class II cabinets designed and constructed for this purpose shall be used.
Class III Cabinet
A totally enclosed, ventilated cabinet or gas-tight construction. Operations in the cabinet are conducted through attached rubber gloves. The cabinet is maintained under negative pressure. Supply air is drawn in through HEPA filters and exhaust air is treated by double HEPA filtration. Class III cabinets are suitable for work with agents that require Biosafety Level 1, 2, 3 or 4 containment.
Clutch
The coupling mechanism used on a mechanical power press to couple the flywheel to the crankshaft, either directly or through a gear train.
Combustible Liquid
Any liquid which has a flash point above 60.5 degrees Celsius (141 degrees Fahrenheit) and below 93 degrees Celsius (200 degrees Fahrenheit).
Committed Dose Equivalent (CDE)
The dose to a specific organ or tissue that is received from an intake of radioactive material by an individual over a specified time after the intake. For radiation protection purposes, the specified time is to the age of 70, which is normally taken to be 50 years for a radiation worker and 70 years for a member of the public.
Committed Effective Dose Equivalent (CEDE)
The committed dose equivalent for a given organ multiplied by a weighting factor.
Compatibility Group Letter
A designated alphabetical letter used to categorize different types of explosive substances and articles for purposes of storage and segregation.
Competent Person
One who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.
Compressed Gas
Any material which is a gas at normal temperature and pressure, and which is contained under pressure as a dissolved gas or liquefied by compression or refrigeration.
Compressed Gas in Solution
A non-liquefied compressed gas which is dissolved in a solvent.
Conductive
A substance or body capable of transmitting electricity or heat.
Confined Space
A space that: Is large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter and perform assigned work; Has limited or restricted means for entry or exit (e.g., tanks, vessels, silos, storage bins, hoppers, vaults, and pits); and Is not designed for continuous employee occupancy.
Connector
A device that is used to couple (connect) parts of a personal fall arrest system or positioning device system together.
Container
Any bag, barrel, bottle, box, can, cylinder, drum, reaction vessel, storage tank, or the like that contains a hazardous chemical.
Contaminated
The presence or reasonably anticipated presence of blood or other potentially infectious materials on an item or surface.
Continuous Noise
Noise intervals of one second or less.
Control Valve
A valve used to control the water supply of a water-based fire protection system.
Controlled Access Zone Systems
A work area designated and clearly marked in which certain types of work (such as over-head plastering) may take place without the use of conventional fall protection systems, guardrail systems, or personal fall arrest systems to protect the employees working in the zone.
Controller
A component of the fire pump system used to supply energy to the drive unit.
Cornea
he surface of the eye that accomplishes the initial focusing of light. The cornea is transparent to visible and near-infrared radiation, but absorbs both ultra-violet and infrared light. Damage to the cornea can result in blurred or distorted vision.
Counter
A general designation applied to radiation detection instruments or survey meters that detect and measure radiation. The signal that indicates an ionization event has been detected is called a count.
Cryogenic Liquid
A refrigerated liquefied gas having a boiling point colder than -90 degrees Celsius (-130 degrees Fahrenheit) at 101.3 kilopascal (kPa) or 14.7 psia.
Curie (Ci)
The original unit used to express the decay rate of a sample of radioactive material. The curie is equal to that quantity of radioactive material in which the number of atoms decaying per second is equal to 37 billion (3.7×1010). It was based on the rate of decay of atoms within one gram of radium. It is named for Marie and Pierre Curie who discovered radium in 1898. The curie is the basic unit of radioactivity used in the system of radiation units in the United States, referred to as “traditional” units.

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D

Decay
The decrease in the amount of any radioactive material with the passage of time due to the spontaneous emission from the atomic nuclei of either alpha or beta particles, often accompanied by gamma radiation.
Decibel (dB)
Unit of measurement of sound level.
Declared Pregnant Woman
A woman who is also a radiation worker and has voluntarily informed her employer, in writing, of her pregnancy and the estimated date of conception.
Decontamination
The use of physical or chemical means to remove, inactivate, or destroy bloodborne pathogens on a surface or item to the point where they are no longer capable of transmitting infectious particles and the surface or item is rendered safe for handling, use or disposal.
Decorations
Any material used for decoration such as stage materials, curtains, drapes, or similar materials or items used for decorative purposes.
Dee-rings
A component of a personal fall arrest system which connects the lifeline to a body belt or body harness.
Department Program Coordinator
Departmental employee responsible for all aspects of the lockout/tagout program in areas affected by this policy.
Depleted Uranium (DU)
Uranium having a percentage of uranium-235 smaller than the 0.7 percent found in natural uranium. It is obtained from spent (used) fuel elements or as byproduct tails, or residues, from uranium isotope separation.
Detection Device
A device or assembly which operates upon either an increase of temperature, the sensing of an abnormal amount of smoke or combustion products, which in turn activates the fire alarm system.
Detector
A material or device that is sensitive to radiation and can produce a response signal suitable for measurement or analysis. A radiation detection instrument.
Detonate
To set off in a burst of activity.
Device
A press control or attachment that: Restrains the operator from inadvertently reaching into the point of operation; Prevents normal press operation if the operator’s hands are inadvertently within the point of operation; Automatically withdraws the operator’s hands if the operator’s hands are inadvertently within the point of operation as the dies close; or Presents the initiation of a stroke, or stops of stroke in progress, when there is an intrusion through the sensing field by any part of the operator’s body or by any other object.
Division
A subdivision of a hazard class.
Dose
A general term used to refer to the effect on a material that is exposed to radiation. It is used to refer either to the amount of energy absorbed by a material exposed to radiation or to the potential biological effect in tissue exposed to radiation.
Dose Rate
The radiation dose delivered per unit time. mR/hr, R/hr
Dosimeter
A small portable instrument (such as a film badge, thermoluminescent or pocket dosimeter) for measuring and recording the total accumulated dose of ionizing radiation.
Double-Cleat Ladder
A ladder with a center rail to allow simultaneous two-way traffic for employees ascending or descending.

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E

Effective Half-life
The time required for the amount of a radionuclide deposited in a living organism to be diminished 50 percent as a result of the combined action of radioactive decay and biological elimination.
Electromagnetic Radiation
A traveling wave motion resulting from changing electric or magnetic fields. Familiar types of electromagnetic radiation range from x rays (and gamma rays) of short wavelength, through the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared regions, to radar and radio waves of relatively long wavelength. Only the higher-energy higher frequency/shorter wavelength forms of electromagnetic radiation are ionizing. Radiation in the lower-energy ranges, such as visible, infrared, radar, and radio waves, are non-ionizing.
Electron
An elementary particle with a negative charge and a mass 1/1837 that of the proton. Electrons surround the positively charged nucleus of the atom.
Elevated Temperature
A material which, when offered for transportation or transported in a bulk packaging is: in a liquid phase and at a temperature at or above 100 degrees Celsius ( 212 degrees Fahrenheit) or is in a liquid phase with a flash point at or above 37.8 degrees Celsius (100 degrees Fahrenheit) that is intentionally heated and offered for transportation or transported at or above its flash point; or is in a solid phase and at a temperature at or above 240 degrees Celsius (464 degrees Fahrenheit).
Emergency
Any occurrence or event internal or external to the permit-required confined space that could endanger entrants.
Emergency Response Personnel
An organization or a group of people trained in the response to an emergency situation. The emergency response personnel include the City of Chicago Fire Department, University Police and Environmental Health and Safety personnel.
Emergency Situation
Any occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment that may or does result in an uncontrolled significant release of an airborne contaminant.
Employee
Any person hired by the University regardless of the person’s job description (e.g., faculty, plant personnel, principle investigators, contractors and sub-contractors hired by contractors).
Employee Exposure
Exposure to a concentration of an airborne contaminant that would occur if the employee were not using respiratory protection.
End-of-Service-Life Indication (ESLI)
A system that warns the respirator user of the approach of the end of adequate respiratory protection, for example, that the sorbent is approaching saturation or is no longer effective.
Energized
Machines and equipment are energized when they are connected to an energy source or they contain residual or stored energy.
Energy Control Procedure
A written document that contains those items of information an authorized employee needs to know in order to safely control hazardous energy during servicing or maintenance of machines or equipment.
Energy Control Program
A program intended to prevent the unexpected energizing or the release of stored energy in machines or equipment. The program consists of energy control procedure(s), an employee training program, and periodic inspections.
Energy Source
Any source of electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical, thermal, or other energy.
Energy-Isolating Device
Any mechanical device that physically prevents the transmission or release of energy. These include, but are not limited to, manually operated electrical circuit breakers, disconnect switches, line valves, and blocks.
Engineering Controls
Controls (e.g., sharps disposal containers, self-sheathing needles, safer medical devices, such as sharps with engineered sharps injury protections and needleless systems) that isolate or remove the bloodborne pathogen hazard from the work place.
Engineering Controls
Mechanical measures such as the physical modification of the work station by providing adjustable chairs, tables and/or tools.
Entry
The action by which a person passes through an opening into a permit-required confined space. Entry is considered to have occurred as soon as any part of the entrant’s body breaks the plane of an opening into the space.
Entry Permit
The written or printed document that is provided by the employer to allow and control entry into a permit-required confined space.
Entry Supervisor
A representative from Facilities Services – Environmental Health and Safety who shall be responsible for the following: determining if acceptable entry conditions are present at a permit-required confined space where entry is planned; authorizing entry; overseeing entry operations; and terminating entry as required.
Epidemiology
A branch of medical science that deals with the incidence, distribution, and control of disease in a population; the sum of the factors controlling the presence or absence of a disease or pathogen.
Equivalent Dose
The product of absorbed dose in tissue multiplied by a quality factor, and then sometimes multiplied by other necessary modifying factors, to account for the potential for a biological effect resulting from the absorbed dose. It is expressed numerically in rems (traditional units) or sieverts (SI units).
Ergonomics
The science used to fit the job to an employee’s anatomical, physiological and psychological characteristics.
Escape-Only Respirator
A respirator intended to be used only for emergency exit.
Exposure
A general term used loosely to express what a person receives as a result of being exposed to ionizing radiation.
Exposure Incident
A specific contact (e.g., eye, nose, mouth, other human membrane, non-intact skin or parenteral contact) with blood or other potentially infectious materials that may result from the performance of an employee’s duties.
External Radiation
The situation in which the source of exposure is external to, that is, outside the body.
Extremities
The hands, forearms, elbows, feet, knees, legs below the knee, and ankles (permissible radiation exposures in these regions are generally greater than in the whole body because they contain less blood-forming organs and have smaller volumes for energy absorption).

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F

Filter or Air Purifying Element
A component used in respirators to remove solid or liquid aerosols from the inspired air.
Filtering Facepiece (Dust Mask)
A negative pressure particulate respirator with a filter as an integral part of the facepiece or with the entire facepiece composed of the filtering medium.
Fire Department Information Center
A locked container used to store Pre-Fire Safety Plans and related data. Keys to open these containers are assigned to only select organizations which are the City of Chicago Fire Department and Environmental Health and Safety.
Fire Detection Systems
A component of the fire alarm system such as smoke and heat detectors or sprinkler heads.
Fire Load
The quantity and type of material within an area or building that would enhance or support a fire.
Fire Protection Equipment
Any type of equipment used in the extinguishment or suppression of a fire. This equipment includes sprinkler systems, standpipes and hose systems, fire pumps and all fixed extinguishing units.
Fire Pump
A pump that supplies water flow and pressure to a sprinkler system or standpipe system.
Fire Resistive Ratings
A minimum rating established by the National Fire Protection Association is which material must meet to prevent and retard combustion.
Fire Suppression Equipment
All equipment used to extinguish a fire (e.g., sprinkler systems, standpipe and hose systems, portable fire extinguishers)..
Fit Test
The use of a protocol to qualitatively or quantitatively evaluate the fit of a respirator on an individual.
Fixed Extinguishing System
A fire protection system designed and approved for use on specific fire hazards they are expected to control and extinguish.
Fixed Ladder
A ladder that cannot be readily moved or carried because it is an integral part of a building or structure.
Flammable Liquids
A liquid having a flash point below 100 degrees Fahrenheit (37.8 degrees Celsius), except any mixture having components with flash points of 100 degrees Fahrenheit (37.8 degrees Celsius) or higher, the total of which makes up 99 percent or more of the total volume of the mixture.
Flammable Range
The difference between the minimum and maximum volume percentages of the material in air that forms a flammable mixture.
Flash Point
The minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off vapor within a test vessel in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface of the liquid.
Flywheels
Flywheels include flywheels, balance wheels, and flywheel pulleys mounted and revolving on crankshaft of engine or other shafting.
Foreign Material
An object or other material which may obstruct in the flow of water in a sprinkler or standpipe system.
Foreseeable Emergency
Any potential occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment which could result in an uncontrolled release of a hazardous chemical into the workplace.
Fovea
The point on the retina that corresponds to the central field of vision. The fovea has the highest density of light-receptive cells of any part of the retina. Damage to the fovea can lead to a blind spot in the central field of vision.

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G

Galvanic Action
A reaction which takes place that weakens the strength of metals when two incompatible metals are placed together.
Gamma Radiation
High-energy, short wavelength, electromagnetic radiation emitted from the nucleus of an atom. Gamma radiation frequently accompanies the emission of alpha and beta particles and always accompanies fission.
Gamma Rays
Very penetrating and are best stopped or shielded by dense materials, such as lead or uranium. Gamma rays are similar to x rays.
Geiger-Mueller Counter
A radiation detection and measuring instrument. It consists of a gas-filled tube containing electrodes, between which there is an electrical voltage, but no current flowing. When ionizing radiation passes through and ionizes the gas within the tube a short, intense pulse of current passes from the negative electrode to the positive electrode and is measured or counted. The number of pulses per second is an indication of the rate at which ionizing events are occurring within the tube. It was named for Hans Geiger and W. Mueller, who invented it in the 1920s. It is sometimes called simply a Geiger counter or a G-M counter, and is the most commonly used portable radiation instrument.
Generator
The University of Chicago, for regulatory purposes, would be identified as the generator of potentially infectious waste, as defined in this policy and procedure.
Glaucoma
An increase in internal pressure within the eye. Glaucoma can be caused by disease, acute heating of the eye’s internal fluids, or in response to trauma (such as a severe blow to the eye). Glaucoma may cause blind spots or loss of peripheral vision.
Gray (Gy)
The international system (SI) unit of radiation dose expressed in terms of absorbed energy per unit mass of tissue. The gray is the unit of absorbed dose and has replaced the rad. 1 gray = 1 Joule/kilogram and also equals 100 rad.
Grinding
To wear down, polish, or sharpen by friction.
Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI)
A device intended for the protection of personnel that monitors the amount of current flowing from hot conductor to neutral conductor and interrupts the circuit if there is an imbalance of more than 4-5 milliamps.
Grounding
The process of connecting one or more conductive objects to the ground; a specific form of bonding.
Guard
A barrier that prevents entry of the operator’s hands or fingers into the point of operation.
Guardrail System
A barrier erected to prevent employees from falling to lower levels.
Guardrails
A vertical barrier, consisting of toprails, midrails, and posts, erected to prevent employees from falling off of a scaffold platform or walkway to lower levels.
Guying
A rope, chain or rod attached to something as a brace or guide.

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H

Half-life
The time in which one-half of the activity of a particular radioactive substance is lost due to radioactive decay. Measured half-lives vary from millionths of a second to billions of years. Also called physical or radiological half-life.
Hand Feeding Tool
Any hand held tool designed for placing or removing material or parts to be processed within or from the point of operation.
Handwashing Facilities
A facility providing an adequate supply of running potable water, soap and single use towels or hot air drying machines.
Hazard Class
The category of hazard assigned to a hazardous material; a material may meet the defining criteria for more than one hazard class but is assigned to only one hazard class.
Hazardous Atmosphere
An atmosphere that may expose employees to the risk of death, incapacitation, impairment or acute illness from one or more of the following causes: Flammable gas, vapor, or mist in excess of ten percent of its lower flammable limit; Airborne combustible dust at a concentration that meets or exceeds its lower flammable limit (dust obscures vision at a distance of five feet or less); Atmospheric oxygen concentration below 19.5 percent or above 23.5 percent; Atmospheric concentration of any substance for which a dose or a permissible exposure limit is published and which could result in employee exposure in excess of its dose or permissible exposure limit; and/or Any other atmospheric condition that is immediately dangerous to life or health.
Hazardous Chemical
Any chemical which is a physical or health hazard.
Hazardous Material
A substance or material which is capable of posing an unreasonable risk to health, safety, and property when transported in commerce; materials designated by the Department of Transportation as hazardous.
Hazardous Process
Any type of work which involves an increase to the risk of fire.
Hazardous Substance
A material including its mixtures and solutions that is listed in the 172.101 – Hazardous Materials Table or is in a quantity, in one package, which equals or exceeds the reportable quantity (RQ) listed in the Hazardous Materials Table.
Hazardous Waste
Any material that is subject to the Hazardous Waste Manifest Requirements of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as specified in 40 CFR part 262.
Hazardous Waste
Waste or materials that contain hazardous chemicals (e.g., corrosive, flammable, toxic, water reactive, radioactive, carcinogens, oxidizers).
Health Hazard
A chemical for which there is statistically significant evidence based on at least one study conducted in accordance with established scientific principles that acute or chronic health effects may occur in exposed employees. The term “health hazard” includes chemicals which are carcinogens, toxic or highly toxic agents, reproductive toxins, irritants, corrosives, sensitizers, hepatotoxins (liver damage), nephrotoxins (kidney damage), neurotoxins (nervous system damage), agents which act on the hematopoietic system (decreases hemoglobin function), and agents which damage the lungs, skin, eyes, or mucous membranes.
Health Physics
The science concerned with the recognition, evaluation, and control of health hazards to permit the safe use and application of ionizing radiation.
HEPA Filter
High efficiency particulate air filter. A disposable extended pleated dry-type filter with a rigid casing enclosing the full depth of the pleats and a minimum particle removal efficiency of 99.9%.
Hertz (Hz)
Unit of measurement of frequency, numerically equal to cycles per second.
High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filter
A filter that is at least 99.97% efficient in removing monodisperse particles of 0.3 micrometers in diameter. The equivalent NIOSH 42 CFR 84 particulate filters are the N100, R100 and P100 filters.
High Radiation Area
Any area with dose rates greater than 100 millirems (1 millisievert) in one hour, 30 centimeters from the source, or from any surface through which the ionizing radiation penetrates. Areas at licensed facilities must be posted as ““high radiation areas”“ and access into these areas is maintained under strict control.
High Risk Facility
A structure that is considered at risk during an event because of the occupants (children) its building materials (glazing of exterior walls is greater than 40 percent).
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)
The HTLV-III retrovirus associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the AIDS-related complex.
Hoist
A manual or power-operated mechanical device to raise or lower a suspended scaffold.
Hoist Area
The area around and below an area where materials or objects are being raised or lifted.
Hole
A void or gap two inches (5.1 centimeters) or more in the least dimension in a floor, roof, or other walking/working surface.
Hose Station
A combination of a hose rack, nozzle, hose and hose connection.
Hot Tap
A procedure used in the repair maintenance and service activities which involves welding on a piece of equipment (pipelines, vessels or tanks) under pressure, in order to install connections or appurtenances. It is commonly used to replace or add sections of pipeline without the interruption of service for air, gas, water, steam, and petrochemical distribution systems.
Hot Work
Any temporary operation involving open flames or producing heat/sparks which includes, but is not limited to brazing, open-flame soldering, oxygen cutting, grinding, arc welding/cutting, oxy-fuel gas welding, hot taps, and torch applied roofing that are capable of initiating fires or explosions.
Hydrostatic Testing
A test conducted on the cylinder or shell of a portable fire extinguisher to ensure it can withstand internal pressures it is subjected to.
Hypoallergenic
Specialized material having a low capacity to induce hypersensitivity.

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I

Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH)
An atmosphere that poses an immediate threat to life, would cause irreversible adverse health effects, or would impair an individual’s ability to escape from a dangerous atmosphere.
Impairment
To diminish or restrict fire protection within a building.
Impulsive/Impact
Sharp burst of noise.
Inerting
The displacement of the atmosphere in a permit-required confined space by a non-combustible gas (e.g., nitrogen) to such an extent that the resulting atmosphere is non-combustible.
Intermittent Noise
Broadband sound pressure level exposure several times throughout the day.
Irradiance, E
Power incident upon a surface, measured in W.cm-2. Synonym: power density.
Isolation Waste
Discarded waste material contaminated with excretions, exudates and secretions from human beings with highly communicable diseases.
Isotope
One of two or more atoms with the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei. Thus, carbon-12, carbon-13, and carbon-14 are isotopes of the element, carbon, the numbers denoting the mass number of each isotope. Isotopes have very nearly the same chemical properties, but often have different physical properties. For example, carbon-12 and carbon-13 are stable; carbon-14 is unstable, that is, it is radioactive.

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K

Keratitis
Inflammation to the cornea, characterized by dullness and the loss of transparency.

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L

Label
Any written or printed words, pictures, symbols or combination thereof displayed on or affixed to a hazardous chemical container which conveys the name of the hazardous material, appropriate hazard warning(s), and the name and address of the chemical manufacturer, importer or other responsible party.
Laboratory
A facility where the “laboratory use” (relatively small quantities of hazardous chemicals are used in a non-production basis) of hazardous chemicals occurs.
Laboratory Director
An individual who supervises or manages a laboratory.
Laboratory Employee
An individual employed in a laboratory work place who may be exposed to chemical hazards in the course of an assignment.
Laboratory Scale
Work involving containers of substances used for reactions and transfers that are designed for easy and safe handling by one person. Work places that produce commercial quantities of materials are excluded from the definition of “Laboratory Scale”.
Laboratory Use
Utilization of hazardous chemicals based on ALL of the following conditions: Chemical manipulations are carried out on a “laboratory scale”; Multiple chemical procedures or chemicals are used; The procedures involved are not part of a production process, nor in any way simulate a production process; and “Protective Laboratory Practices and Equipment” are available, and in common use, to minimize the potential for employee exposure to hazardous chemicals.
Ladders
A ladder is an appliance usually consisting of two side rails joined at regular intervals by cross-pieces called steps, rungs or cleats, on which a person may step in ascending or descending.
Laminar Air Flow
Streamlined airflow in which the entire body of air within a designated space moves with uniform velocity in one direction along parallel flow lines.
Lanyard
A flexible line of rope, wire rope, or strap that generally has a connector at each end for connecting the body belt or body harness to a deceleration device, lifeline or anchorage; A rope used for fastening.
Laser
Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation: a device that produces light by this process. In comparison to other light sources, laser radiation is highly collimated, coherent, monochromatic and intense.
Laser System
A laboratory apparatus that includes a laser and it’s power source, modifying apparatus such as doublers, dyes or OPOs, and all optics, instruments and objects which deflect, focus, or absorb the laser beam.
LC50
The concentration of a material in air that on the basis of laboratory tests (inhalation route of entry) is expected to kill 50% of a group of test animal when administered as a single exposure in a specific time period.
Leading Edge
The edge of a floor, roof, or formwork for a floor or other walking/working surface (such as the deck) which changes location as additional floor, roof, decking or formwork sections are placed, formed or constructed.
Lean-to Scaffold
A supported scaffold that is kept erect by tilting it toward and resting it against a building or structure.
Letter-Shaped Symbol
A labeling system used for identifying the rating of an extinguisher. A letter rating of the extinguisher is placed in the center of a defined shaped.
Lifeline
A component consisting of a flexible line for connection to an anchorage at one end to hang vertically (vertical lifeline), or for connection to anchorages at both ends to stretch horizontally (horizontal lifeline), and that serves as a means for connecting other components of a personal fall arrest system to the anchorage.
Limited Quantity
The maximum amount of a hazardous material for which there is a specific labeling or packaging exception.
Liquefied Compressed Gas
A gas which in a packaging under the charged pressure, is partially liquid at a temperature of 20 degrees Celsius (68 degrees Fahrenheit).
Lock Box
A locked container often used to store building plans or related data. Keys to open these containers are assigned only to select individuals such as the City of Chicago Fire Department and Environmental Health and Safety.
Lockout
The placement of a lockout device on an energy-isolating device, in accordance with an established procedure, ensuring that the energy-isolating device and the equipment being controlled cannot be operated until the lockout device is removed.
Lockout Device
Any device that uses positive means such as a lock, either key or combination type, to hold an energy-isolating device in a safe position, thereby preventing the energizing of machinery or equipment. When properly installed, a blank flange or bolted slip blind are considered equivalent to lockout devices.
Low Sloped Roof
A roof having a slope less than or equal to 4 in 12 (vertical to horizontal).

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M

Macula
An oval depression on the retina, lateral and slightly below the optic disk. The macula is the general center of vision, and contains the fovea.
Marine Pollutant
A material which is listed in appendix B to § 172.101 when in a solution or mixture of one or more marine pollutants, is packaged in a concentration which equals or exceeds: Ten percent by weight of the solution or mixture for materials listed in the appendix; or one percent by weight of the solution or mixture for materials that are identified as severe marine pollutants in the appendix.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
Written or printed material concerning a hazardous chemical which is prepared in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1200 (g) “Hazard Communication”.
Means of Egress
A continuous and unobstructed way of exit travel from any point in a building or structure to a public way.
Microcurie (mCi)
One millionth (10E-6) of a curie.
Midrails
A rail approximately midway between the guardrail and platform, used when required, and secured to the uprights erected along the exposed sides and ends of platforms.
Mill
A machine consisting of two adjacent metal rolls, set horizontally, which revolve in opposite directions (e.g., toward each other as viewed from above) used for the mechanical working of rubber and plastics compounds.
Millirem (mRem)
One thousandth of a rem. (1 mrem = 10E-3 rem)
Mold
A microorganism belonging to the Kindgom Fungi that grows in multicellular filaments called hyphae to from networks called mycelium and produce spores to reproduce.
Mold Remediation
The act or process of correcting a mold problem.
Motor Vehicle
Includes a vehicle, machine, tractor, trailer, or semitrailer, or any combination thereof, propelled or drawn by mechanical power and used upon the highways in the transportation of passengers or property. It does not include a vehicle, locomotive, or car operated exclusively on a rail or rails, or a trolley bus operated by electric power derived from a fixed overhead wire, furnishing local passenger transportation similar to street-railway service.
MPE
Maximum Permissible Exposure: the highest level of laser radiation that may be incident upon the eye (or skin) without having an adverse effect. The MPE depends on both the wavelength of light and duration of exposure.
Mucous Membrane
A membrane rich in mucous glands which lines body passages and cavities which communicate directly or indirectly with the exterior and functions in the protection, support, nutrient absorption, and secretion of mucus, enzymes, and salts.
Musculoskeletal Disorder (MSD)
Any physical disorder that results from or is aggravated by the cumulative effect of biomechanical stress to tendons, tendon sheaths, synovial lubrication of the tendon sheaths and related bone, muscles, the nerves of the hands, wrist, elbows, shoulders, neck and back.

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N

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
An organization promoting fire science and improving the methods of fire protection and prevention, electrical safety, and other related safety issues. Many of the performance criteria promulgated by the NFPA may be adopted by federal or local agencies.
Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM)
An acronym for Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material. Naturally occurring radioactive materials are common in virtually all rocks, minerals, and soils. They naturally contain small amounts of uranium, thorium, and a radioactive isotope of potassium. Plants and animals are also naturally radioactive; they contain small (but measurable) levels of radioactive potassium as well as radioactive carbon (C-14) and hydrogen (tritium, or H-3) that are formed by cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere.
Needleless System
A device that does not use a needle for: The collection of bodily fluids or withdrawal of body fluids after initial venous or arterial access is established; The administration of medication or fluids; or any other procedure involving the potential for occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens due to percutaneous injuries from contaminated sharps.
Negative Pressure Respirator
A respirator in which the air pressure inside the facepiece is negative during inhalation with respect to the ambient air pressure outside the respirator.
Neutron
An uncharged elementary particle with a mass slightly greater than that of the proton, and found in the nucleus of every atom heavier than hydrogen.
NHZ
Nominal Hazard Zone: the area surrounding a laser system within which the power of the beam exceeds the MPE. A different NHZ will exist for different powers, setups, and application of the laser system, as well as level of protection used (such as laser goggles, curtains, etc.).
NOAA Public Alert Radio
A specialized radio designed to alert when warnings are issued for the immediate area.
Non-Adjustable Suspension Scaffolds
One or more stationary platforms suspended by ropes or other non-rigid means from an overhead structure.
Non-Bulk Packaging
A packaging which has: A maximum capacity less than 450 liters as a receptacle for a liquid; a maximum capacity less than 450 liters as a receptacle for a liquid; a maximum net mass less than 400 kilograms and a maximum capacity less than 450 liters as a receptacle for a solid; or a water capacity greater than 454 kilograms.
Non-intact Skin
Broken, torn or cut tissue from a human.
Non-Liquefied Compressed Gas
A gas, other than in solution, which in a packaging under the charged pressure is entirely gaseous at a temperature of 20 degrees Celsius (68 degrees Fahrenheit).
Non-Permit Confined Space
A confined space that does not contain or, with respect to atmospheric hazards, have the potential to contain any hazard capable of causing death or serious physical harm.
Non-stochastic Effects
Health effects, the severity of which varies with the dose and for which a threshold is believed to exist. Nonstochastic effects generally result from the receipt of a relatively high dose over a short time period. Skin erythema (reddening) and radiation-induced cataract formation is an example of a nonstochastic effect. This term has been replaced with Deterministic Effect.
Normal Production Operations
The utilization of a machine or equipment to perform its intended production function.
Nucleus
The small, central, positively charged central core of an atom. Except for the nucleus of ordinary (light) hydrogen, which has a single proton, all atomic nuclei contain both protons and neutrons. The number of protons determines the total positive charge, or atomic number, which in turn determines the chemical element that a given atom represents. That is to say, all atoms of a given chemical element have the same number of protons in their nuclei. The total number of neutrons and protons is called the mass number.
Nuclide
A general term that refers to any known isotope, either stable or unstable, of any element. Whereas a single element can have isotopes, when referring to the isotopes of more than one element, the proper term is nuclide. A radionuclide is an unstable nuclide.

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O

Occupancy
A designation which classifies the building or area within the building (e.g., business, hazardous use, school, multiple dwelling).
Occupational Exposure
Reasonably anticipated skin, eye, mucous membrane, or parenteral contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials that may result from the performance of an employee’s duties.
Open Flame Devices
Any device which supports a flame (e.g., personal lighters).
Opening
A gap or void 30 inches (76 centimeters) or more high and 18 inches (46 centimeters) or more wide, in a wall or partition, through which employees can fall to a lower level.
Operating Condition
The condition maintained for fire suppression equipment to ensure proper operation during the event of a fire.
Optic Disk
The area on the retina corresponding to the entrance of the optic nerve, also known as the blind spot.
Optic Nerve
The bundle of nerves that attach the retina to the brain. Damage to the optic nerve can lead to total blindness.
Other Potentially Infectious Materials
The following human fluids: Semen, vaginal secretions, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, peritoneal fluid, amniotic fluid, saliva in dental procedures, any body fluid that is visibly contaminated with blood and all body fluids in situations where it is difficult or impossible to differentiate between body fluids; Any unfixed tissue or organ (other than intact skin) from human (living or dead); and HIV-containing or other bloodborne pathogen-containing cell or tissue cultures, organ cultures and HIV-containing or HBV-containing culture medium or other solutions; and blood, organs or other tissues from experimental animals infected with HIV, HBV or other bloodborne pathogens.
Outriggers
The structural member of a supported scaffold used to increase the base width of a scaffold in order to provide support for and increased stability of the scaffold.
Outside Service Contractors
Contractors hired by the University of Chicago to perform services identified by project management or operations and maintenance (e.g., plumbing contractors, general contractors).
Oversized Potentially Infectious Waste
A single waste item that is too large to be placed into a thirty-three gallon bag or container.
Oxygen Deficient Atmosphere
An atmosphere with an oxygen content below 19.5% by volume.

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P

Packaging
A container and any other components or materials necessary for the container to perform its containment function in conformance with the minimum packing requirements.
Pathological/Anatomical
Human pathological waste (e.g., tissues; organs; body parts – except teeth and the contiguous structures of bone and gum; body fluids that are removed during surgery, autopsy, or other medical procedures; and specimens of body fluids and their containers).
Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL)
An exposure limit established and enforced by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) which may be expressed as a time-weighted average (TWA) limit, short term exposure limit (STEL) or ceiling exposure limit.
Permit-Required Confined Space (Permit Space)
A confined space that has one or more of the following characteristics: Contains or has a potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere (e.g., dependent upon work activities – cleaning with solvents, using degreasers); Contains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrant; Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a floor which slopes downward and tapers to a smaller cross-section; or Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard (i.e., excessive noise levels, moving parts, electrical hazards, fall/trip hazards).
Personal Fall Arrest System
A system including but not limited to an anchorage, connectors and a body belt or body harness used to arrest an employee in a fall from a working level. As of January 1, 1998, the use of a body belt for fall arrest is prohibited.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Specialized clothing or equipment worn by an employee for protection against a hazard. General work clothes (e.g., uniforms, pants, shirts, blouses) not intended to function as protection against a hazard are not considered to be personal protective equipment.
Phase I Environmental Site Assessment
The assessment is conducted to determine the probability of environmental concerns associated with past and present uses of the property and adjacent properties. A Phase I Environmental Site Assessment is used to determine if further investigation is needed into the condition of the property. A Phase I Environmental Site Assessment can include a visual inspection of the property and adjacent properties, determining the past and present uses of the land, reviewing documentation of regulatory compliance, conducting interviews with past and present property owners and determining the presence of any Underground Storage Tanks.
Phase II Environmental Site Assessment
The assessment is conducted after the results of a Phase I Environmental Site Assessment have shown the presence of environmental concerns at the property or on adjacent properties. A Phase II Environmental Site Assessment is used to determine if there is a need for any remediation based on current environmental regulatory guidelines. A Phase II Environmental Site Assessment can include an evaluation of the hydro geological conditions of the site and the location, type and concentrations of contaminants.
Physical Hazard
A chemical for which there is scientifically valid evidence that it is a combustible liquid, compressed gas, explosive, flammable, organic peroxide, oxidizer, pyrophoric, unstable (reactive), or water-reactive.
Physician or Other Licensed Health Care Professional (PLHCP)
An individual whose legally permitted scope of practice (e.g., license, registration or certification) allows him or her to independently provide, some or all of the health care services required by the standard.
Pictogram
A label using diagrams to indicate the fire rating of a portable fire extinguisher.
Pig
A plastic or leaded container that contains a vial of radioactive material.
Pinch Point
Any point other than the point of operation at which it is possible for a part of the body to be caught between the moving parts of a press or auxiliary equipment, or between moving and stationary parts of a press or auxiliary equipment or between the material and moving part or parts of the press or auxiliary equipment.
Pipetting
The act of drawing fluid by suction using a small piece of apparatus which typically consists of a narrow tube into which fluid is drawn as for dispensing or measuring and retained by closing the upper end.
Platform
A working surface for persons, elevated above the surrounding floor or ground; such as an extended step or landing breaking a continuous run of stairs.
Platforms
A work surface elevated above lower levels. Platforms can be constructed using individual wood planks, fabricated planks, fabricated decks, and fabricated platforms.
Point of Access
All areas used by employees for work-related passage from one area or level to another.
Portable Fire Extinguishers
Extinguishing units that can be brought to the fire.
Positioning Device System
A body belt or body harness system rigged to allow an employee to be supported on an elevated vertical surface, such as a wall, and work with both hands free while leaning backwards.
Positive Pressure Respirator
A respirator in which the pressure inside the respiratory inlet covering exceeds the ambient air pressure outside the respirator.
Potentially Infectious Waste
Human blood, human blood components, and products made from human blood. Human body fluids; unfixed tissues or organs (other than intact skin) from a human (living or dead); HIV – containing cell or tissue cultures, organ cultures and HIV – or HBV – containing culture mediums or other solutions; and blood organs, or other tissue from experimental animals infected with HIV or HBV.
Power-Operated Hoists
A hoist that is powered by other than human energy.
Powered Air-purifying Respirator (PAPR)
An air-purifying respirator that uses a blower to force the ambient air through air-purifying elements to the inlet covering.
Pre-Fire Safety Plan
A document containing general information/data about a building to be used by public emergency response agencies or the University for use in coordinating an emergency response.
Press
A mechanically powered machine that shears, punches, forms or assembles metal or other material by means of cutting, shaping, or combination dies attached to slides. A press consists of a stationary bed or anvil, and a slide (or slides) having a controlled reciprocating motion toward and away from the bed surface, the slide being guided in a definite path by the frame of the press.
Pressure Demand Respirator
A positive pressure atmosphere-supplying respirator that admits breathing air to the facepiece when the positive pressure is reduced inside the facepiece by inhalation.
Primary Hazard
The hazard class of a material as assigned in the “172.101 – Hazardous Material Table”.
Priority Rescue Area
An area in an older buildings (constructed before the 1990s) where individuals who are unable to evacuate can await evacuation assistance. Priority Rescue Areas are clearly marked and are generally located in a stairwell or in an area immediately adjacent to a stairwell.
Professional Engineer
A licensed person who has graduated from an engineering program accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, has passed the Fundamentals of Engineering exam, gained four years of experience working under a Professional Engineer, and passed the Principles and Practice of Engineering exam.
Prohibited Condition
Any condition in a permit-required confined space that is not allowed by the permit during the period when entry is authorized.
psi
Pounds per square inch.
psia
Pounds per square inch absolute.
Pupil
The aperture of the eye. The pupil controls the total level of light that is passes onto the retina. The pupil of an average adult may dilate to a diameter of 7 mm.
Putrescent
The partial decomposition of organic matter by microorganisms so as to cause malodors, gases or other offensive conditions or that is capable of providing food for vectors.
Pyrophoric Material
A liquid or solid that, even in small quantities and without an external ignition source, can ignite within five minutes after coming in contact with air.

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Q

Qualified Person
One who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training, and experience, has successfully demonstrated his/her ability to solve or resolve problems related to the subject matter, work or project.
Qualitative Fit Test (QLFT)
A pass/fail fit test to assess the adequacy of respiratory fit that relies on the individual’s response to the test agent.
Quality Factor (QF)
The factor by which the absorbed dose (rad or gray) must be multiplied to obtain a quantity that expresses, on a common scale for all ionizing radiation, the biological damage (rem or sievert) to the exposed tissue. It is used because some types of radiation, such as alpha particles, are more biologically damaging to live tissue than other types of radiation when the absorbed dose from both is equal. The term, quality factor, has now been replaced by ““radiation weighting factor”“ in the latest system of recommendations for radiation protection.
Questionable Conditions
A concern which exists which the item or items being reviewed do not appear to meet the required criteria set by the applicable standard.

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R

Rad
The original unit developed for expressing absorbed dose, which is the amount of energy from any type of ionizing radiation (e.g., alpha, beta, gamma, neutrons, etc.) deposited in any medium (e.g., water, tissue, air). A dose of one rad is equivalent to the absorption of 100 ergs (a small but measurable amount of energy) per gram of absorbing tissue. The rad has been replaced by the gray in the SI system of units (1 gray = 100 rad).
Radiant exposure, H
Energy incident upon a surface, measured in J.cm-2.
Radiation Area
Any area with radiation levels greater than 5 millirems (0.05 millisievert) in one hour at 30 centimeters from the source or from any surface through which the radiation penetrates.
Radiation Attenuation
Attenuation is the process by which the number of particles or photons entering a body of matter is reduced by absorption and scattering.
Radiation Decontamination
The reduction or removal of contaminated radioactive material from a structure, area, object, or person. Decontamination may be accomplished by (1) treating the surface to remove or decrease the contamination or (2) letting the material stand to permit the quantity of radioactive material decrease as a result of radioactive decay.
Radiation Sickness
The complex of symptoms characterizing the disease known as radiation injury, resulting from excessive exposure (greater than 200 rads or 2 gray) of the whole body (o:r large part) to ionizing radiation. The earliest of these symptoms are nausea, fatigue, vomiting, and diarrhea, which may be followed by loss of hair (epilation), hemorrhage, inflammation of the mouth and throat, and general loss of energy. In severe cases, where the radiation exposure has been approximately 1,000 rad (10 gray) or more, death may occur within two to four weeks.
Radiation Source
Usually a sealed source of radiation used in teletherapy and industrial radiography, as a power source for batteries (as in use in space craft), or in various types of industrial gauges. Machines, such as accelerators and radioisotope generators, and natural radionuclides may be considered sources.
Radiation Warning Symbol
An officially prescribed symbol (a magenta or black trefoil) on a yellow background that must be displayed where certain quantities of radioactive materials are present or where certain doses of radiation could be received.
RAM
Acronym for “Radioactive Material”
Rated Load
The manufacturer’s specified maximum load to be lifted by a hoist or to be applied to a scaffold or scaffold component.
Readily Combustible Solids
Materials that are solids and may cause fire through friction, such as matches, or any metal powders that can be ignited and react over the whole length of a sample in ten minutes or less.
Receptacle
A containment vessel for receiving and holding materials, including any means of closing.
Refrigerant
Any substance consisting in part or whole of a Class I or Class II ozone-depleting substance, as defined in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively, of 40 CFR Part 82, that is used for heat transfer purposes and provides a cooling effect.
Regulated Waste
Liquid or semi-liquid blood or other potentially infectious materials; Items that are caked with dried blood or other potentially infectious materials and are capable of releasing these materials during handling; Contaminated sharps; and Pathological and microbiological wastes containing blood or other potentially infectious materials.
Relative Humidity
The amount of water vapor that exists in air compared to the maximum possible water vapor in air for the same temperature and pressure.
Release
Any spilling, overfilling, leaking, emitting, discharging, escaping, leaching or disposing from a UST into groundwater, surface water or subsurface soils.
Representative Sample
A sample of two sprinkler heads per floor or individual riser, in any case not less than four, or one percent of the number of sprinkler heads per system, whichever is greater.
Residential Properties
A property owned by the University and used for single families.
Resuable Container
A receptacle that meets the following conditions: Rigid; Leak resistant; Impervious to moisture; Sufficient strength to prevent tearing or bursting under normal conditions of use and handling; Sealed to prevent leakage during transport; Corrosion resistant; Non-absorbant; and Designed and ocnstructed to permit easy cleaning and disinfection.
Retina
The inner surface of the rear of the eye, covered by blood vessels and light-sensitive cells. The retina absorbs light in the visible and near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Reupholstered
To replace filling materials or materials encasing or covering filling materials on an article of seating furniture.
Riser Height
The vertical distance from the top of a tread or platform/landing to the top of the next higher tread or platform/landing.
Rungs
Rungs are ladder cross-pieces of circular or oval cross-section, on which a person may step in ascending or descending.
Runways
A walkway provided for pedestrian traffic.

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S

Safety Devices
A device other than a cage or well, designed to eliminate or reduce the possibility of accidental falls and which may incorporate such features as life belts, friction brakes and sliding attachments.
Safety Monitoring System
A safety system in which a competent person is responsible for recognizing and warning employees of fall hazards.
Sanitizer
An antimicrobial agent intended for application to inanimate objects or surfaces for the purpose of reducing microbial count to safe levels. The sanitizer shall be registered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency.
Scaffolds
Any temporary elevated platform (supported or suspended) and its supporting structure (including points of anchorage), used for supporting employees or material or both.
Scenery
Any painted scenes, hangings or accessories used on a theater stage.
Screw Jacks
A component of the scaffold that is attached to the frame and the base plate and is used to assist in leveling the scaffold.
Sealed Source
Any special nuclear material or byproduct encased in a capsule designed to prevent leakage or escape of the material.
Self Retracting Lifeline/Lanyard
A deceleration device containing a drum-wound line which can be slowly extracted from, or retracted onto, the drum under minimal tension during normal employee movement and which, after onset of a fall, automatically locks the drum and arrests the fall.
Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)
An atmosphere supplying respirator for which the breathing air source is designed to be carried by the user.
Self-heating Material
A material that when in contact with air and without an energy supply, is liable to self-heat.
Self-reactive Materials
Materials that are liable to undergo, at normal or elevated temperatures, a strongly exothermal decomposition caused by excessively high transport temperatures or by contamination.
Service Life
The period of time that a respirator, filter or sorbent, or other respiratory equipment provides adequate protection to the wearer.
Servicing and/or Maintenance
Workplace activities such as constructing, installing, setting-up, adjusting, inspecting, modifying, and maintaining and/or servicing machines or equipment. These activities include lubrication, cleaning or unjamming of machines or equipment and making adjustments or tool changes, where the employee may be exposed to the unexpected energization or start up of the equipment or release of hazardous energy.
Setting-up
Any work performed to prepare a machine or equipment to perform its normal production operation.
Sharps
Objects that can penetrate the skin including, but not limited to, needles, scalpels, broken glass, broken capillary tubes and exposed ends of dental wires.
Sharps Container
A receptacle that in addition to meeting the conditions of a reusable container, is also puncture resistant.
Sharps with Engineered Sharps Injury Protections (SESIP)
Non-needle sharp or a needle sharp with a built in safety feature or mechanism that effectively reduces the risk of an exposure incident.
Sheaves
Grooved pulleys.
Shielding
Any material or obstruction that absorbs radiation and thus tends to protect personnel or materials from the effects of ionizing radiation.
Shore Scaffold
A supported scaffold that is placed against a building or structure and held in place with props.
Sievert (Sv)
The international system (SI) unit for dose equivalent equal to 1 Joule/kilogram. The sievert has replaced the rem. One sievert is equivalent to 100 rem.
Sill
A horizontal piece that forms the lowest member or one of the lowest members of a framework or supporting structure.
Single-Point Adjustable Scaffold
A suspension scaffold consisting of a platform suspended by one rope from an overhead support and equipped with a means to permit the movement of the platform to desired work levels.
Snaphook
A connector consisting of a hook-shaped member with a normally closed keeper, or similar arrangement, which may be opened to permit the hook to receive an object and, when released automatically closes to retain the object.
Sound Level
Ten times the common logarithm of the ratio of the square of the measured A-weighted sound pressure to the square of the standard reference pressure of 20 micropascals. Unit: decibels (dB).
Spore
The means by which molds reproduce. They vary in shape and size and travel through air by being discharged by the mold or through an air breeze.
Sprinkler System
An integrated system of piping and sprinklers installed in an area or building to suppress or extinguish a fire when activated.
Stair Tread
The horizontal member of a step.
Stairrail
A vertical barrier erected along the unprotected sides and edges of a stairway to prevent employees from falling to lower levels.
Stairways
A series of steps leading from one level or floor to another, or leading to platforms, pits, boiler rooms, crossovers, or around machinery, tanks and other equipment that are used more or less continuously or routinely by employees, or only occasionally by specific individuals. A series of steps and landing having three or more risers constitutes stairs or stairway.
Stall Load
The load at which the prime mover of a power-operated hoist stalls or the power to the prime mover is automatically disconnected.
Stanchions
An upright bar, post or support.
Standard Threshold Shift (STS)
A change in hearing threshold relative to the baseline audiogram of an average of 10 dB or more at 2000, 3000 and 4000 hertz in either ear.
Standpipe System
An arrangement of piping, valves, hose connections and allied equipment installed in a building or structure with the hose connections located in such a manner that water can be discharged in streams or spray patterns through attached hose and nozzles.
Steep Roof
A roof having a slope greater than 4 in 12 (vertical to horizontal).
Stilts
A pair of poles or similar supports raised footrests, used to permit walking above the ground or working surface.
Stochastic Effects
Effects that occur by chance and which may occur without a threshold level of dose, whose probability is proportional to the dose and whose severity is independent of the dose. In the context of radiation protection, the main stochastic effect is cancer.
Stock Cultures/Agents
Cultures and stocks of agents infectious to humans and associated biologicals (e.g., cultures from pathological laboratories; cultures and stocks of infectious agents from research or industrial laboratories; waste from the production of biologicals; discarded live and attenuated vaccines; and culture dishes and devices used to transfer, inoculate and mix cultures).
Storage
Containment of waste, either on a temorary basis or for a period of years, in such a manner as not to constitute disposal.
Subsidiary Hazard
A hazard other than the primary hazard.
Supplied Air Respirator (SAR) or Airline Respirator
An atmosphere-supplying respirator for which the source of breathing air is not designed to be carried by the user.
Survey Meter
Any portable radiation detection instrument especially adapted for inspecting an area or individual to establish the existence and amount of radioactive material present.
Suspect Asbestos-Containing Materials (ACM)
Those materials that have the possibility of containing asbestos and should be sampled before being disturbed and include, but are not limited to, the following: floor tile and mastic; ceiling tile; wall/ceiling plaster; pipe insulation; pipe joint compound; lab hoods/tops; duct insulation; and cementitious ridged panels (transite panels).
Suspension Scaffolds
One or more platforms suspended by ropes or other non-rigid means from an overhead structure.

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T

Tagout
The placement of a tagout device on an energy-isolating device, in accordance with an established procedure, to indicate that the energy-isolating device and the equipment being controlled may NOT be operated until the tagout device is removed.
Tagout Device
Any prominent warning device, such as a tag and a means of attachment, that can be securely fastened to an energy-isolating device in accordance with established procedures. The tag indicates that the machine or equipment to which it is attached is not to be operated until the tagout device is removed in accordance with the energy control procedure.
Tank
A stationary device designed to contain an accumulation of regulated substances and constructed of non-earthen materials (e.g., steel, fiberglass, concrete, plastic) that provides structural support.
Technician
Any person who performs maintenance, service, or repair that could reasonably be expected to release Class I or Class II refrigerants from appliances into the atmosphere. Technician also refers to any person performing disposal of appliances that could be reasonably expected to release refrigerants from appliances into the atmosphere.
TLD
Also known as “Thermoluminescent Detector”. A small device used to measure the radiation dose by measuring the amount of light emitted from a crystal in the detector when the crystal is heated after being exposed to the radiation.
Toeboard
A low protective barrier that prevents material and equipment from falling to lower levels and which protects personnel from falling.
Tornado Warning
A tornado has been detected by either radar or visually spotted.
Tornado Watch
Weather conditions support the development of severe weather and tornado activity.
Transfer Station
A site or facility that accepts waste for temporary storage or consolidation prior to shipment to a treatment facility.
Transmission
The act, process, or instance of sending or conveying from one person or place to another.
Transport Vehicle
A cargo-carrying vehicle such as an automobile, van, tractor, truck, semitrailer, tank car or rail car used for the transportation of cargo by any mode. Each cargo-carrying body (trailer, rail car, etc.) is a separate transport vehicle.
Two-Hand Trip
A clutch actuating means requiring the concurrent use of both hands of the operator to trip the press.
Two-Point Adjustable Scaffold
A suspension scaffold consisting of a platform supported by hangers suspended by two ropes from overhead supports and equipped with a means to permit the raising and lowering of the platform to desired work levels.
Tying
To fasten or attach.

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U

UN
United Nations.
Underground Storage Tank (UST)
Any one or combination of tanks (including underground pipes, ancillary equipment and cathodic protection connected thereto) used to contain an accumulation of regulated substances, and the volume of which (including the volume of underground pipes connected thereto) is ten percent or more beneath the surface of the ground.
Universal Precautions
An approach to infection control. Under this approach, all human blood and certain human body fluids are treated as if known to be infected with HIV, HBV and other bloodborne pathogens.
Unprotected Sides and Edges
Any side or edge (except at entrances to points of access) of a walking/working surface (e.g., floor, roof, ramp or runway) where there is no wall or guardrail system at least 39 inches (1 meter) high.
Unqualified Person
One who has not completed all of the training that is required for a Qualified Person.
Unused Sharps
This waste shall include, but not be limited to, the following unused, discarded sharps: hypodermic, intravenous, or other needles; hypodermic or intravenous syringes, or scalpel blades.
User Seal Check
An action conducted by the respirator user to determine if the respirator is properly seated to the face.

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V

Vector
Any living agent, other than human, capable of transmitting directly or indirectly an infectious disease.

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W

Walking Working Surface
Any surface, whether horizontal or vertical, on which an employee walks or works, including but not limited to floors, roofs, ramps, bridges, runways, formwork, and concrete reinforcing steel. Does not include ladders, vehicles, or trailers on which employees must be located to perform their work duties.
Warning Line System
A barrier erected on a roof to warn employees that they are approaching an unprotected roof side or edge and which designates an area in which roofing work may take place without the use of guardrail, body belt, or safety net systems to protect employees in the area.
Water Infiltration
The process by which water enters building structures such as roofs, walls, floors and other building components through leaks in plumbing systems or natural occuring water from outside of the building.
Water Reactive Chemicals
Chemicals that react on contact with water and/or humid air. The chemical reaction could include the release of a gas that is either flammable or presents a toxic health hazard. The chemical reaction could also produce enough heat for the item to spontaneously combust or explode.
Wells
A well is a permanent complete enclosure around a fixed ladder, which is attached to the walls of the well. Proper clearances for a well will give the person who must climb the ladder the same protection as a cage.
Work Area
A room or defined space in a workplace where hazardous chemicals are produced or used and where employees are present.
Work Practice Controls
Modifications in the manner an employee performs the physical work activities of a job that decrease or control exposure to MSD hazards.

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X

X-Rays
Penetrating electromagnetic radiation having a range of wavelengths (energies) that are similar to those of gamma photons. X rays are usually produced by excitation of the electron field around certain nuclei. Although once formed, there is no difference in x rays and gamma photons; however, there is a difference in their origin. X rays are produced by shifts in the electrons between the rings outside the nucleus of an atom whereas gamma photons are produced by reactions within the nucleus of an atom.

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